Characterization of mechanical behavior of woven fabrics: Experimental methods and benchmark results

J. Cao, R. Akkerman, P. Boisse, J. Chen, H. S. Cheng, E. F. de Graaf, J. L. Gorczyca, P. Harrison, G. Hivet, J. Launay, W. Lee, L. Liu, S. V. Lomov, A. Long, E. de Luycker, F. Morestin, J. Padvoiskis, X. Q. Peng, J. Sherwood, Tz StoilovaX. M. Tao, I. Verpoest, A. Willems, J. Wiggers, T. X. Yu, B. Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

556 Citations (Scopus)


Textile composites made of woven fabrics have demonstrated excellent mechanical properties for the production of high specific-strength products. Research efforts in the woven fabric sheet forming are currently at a point where benchmarking will lead to major advances in understanding both the strengths and the limitations of existing experimental and modeling approaches. Test results can provide valuable information for the material characterization and forming process design of woven composites if researchers know how to interpret the results obtained from varying test methods appropriately. An international group of academic and industry researchers has gathered to design and conduct benchmarking tests of interest to the composite sheet forming community. Shear deformation is the dominative deformation mode for woven fabrics in forming; therefore, trellis-frame (picture-frame) and bias-extension tests for both balanced and unbalanced fabrics have been conducted and compared through this collaborative effort. Tests were conducted by seven international research institutions on three identical woven fabrics. Both the variations in the setup of each research laboratory and the normalization methods used to compare the test results are presented and discussed. With an understanding of the effects of testing variations on the results and the normalization methods, numerical modeling efforts can commence and new testing methods can be developed to advance the field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1037-1053
Number of pages17
JournalComposites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2008


  • A. Fabrics/textile
  • B. Mechanical properties
  • D. Mechanical testing
  • E. Forming


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