Effects of surface roughness on forced convection and friction in triangular ducts

H. J. Rang, T. T. Wong, C. W. Leung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Experimental investigations had been conducted to study the forced convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the hydrodynamic fully developed turbulent flow in horizontal equilateral triangular ducts fabricated with Ike same length and hydraulic diameter but different surface roughness of 1.2, 3.0, and 11.5 μm. The experiments were performed with hydraulic diameter-based Reynolds number ranging from 7, 000 to 20, 000. The entire inner wall of the duct was heated uniformly, while the outer surface was thermally insulated. It was found that the variation of Stanton number (St) with friction factor (f) can be expressed by a relationship of St = C * f, where the constant (C) increases from 0.41 to 0.50 when the surface roughness is increased from 1, 2 to 11.5 μm. It was also concluded that the duct with a higher surface roughness will have better heat transfer performance. Nondimensional expressions for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of the equilateral triangular ducts with different surface roughness were also developed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-253
Number of pages13
JournalExperimental Heat Transfer
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1998


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