Cerebral ischemia is a cerebrovascular disease with high morbidity and mortality that poses a significant burden on society and the economy. About 60% of cerebral ischemia is caused by thrombus, and the formation of thrombus proceeds from insoluble fibrin, following its transformation from liquid fibrinogen. In thrombus-induced ischemia, increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), followed by the extravasation of blood components into the brain results in an altered brain microenvironment. Changes in the brain microenvironment affect brain function and the neurovascular unit (NVU), the working unit of the brain. Recent studies have reported that coagulation factors interact with the NVU and its components, but the specific function of this interaction is highly speculative and warrants further investigations. In this article, we reviewed the role of coagulation factors in cerebral ischemia and the role of coagulation factors in thrombosis. Additionally, the influence of thrombin on the NVU is introduced, as well as in the function of NVU, which may help to explore part of brain injury mechanism during ischemia. Lastly, we propose some novel therapeutic approaches on ischemic stroke by reducing the risk of coagulation.
- Cerebral ischemia
- Neurovascular unit