Dyes are extensively used in textile coloration. Recently, pigment coloration has become more and more popular in the textile industry as it has more environmental advantages. However, the color uptake, colorfastness to crocking and levelness of pigment dyed fabric are not satisfactory, and modification is needed to obtain a better color quality. Plasma treatment is widely used for modifying heat sensitive material surfaces through active plasma species. Therefore, a comprehensive comparison of dye and pigment coloration and a review of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment have been conducted in this paper.